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Title: Native and engineered extracellular vesicles for cardiovascular therapeutics
Authors: Abreu, Ricardo Cerqueira de
Fernandes, Hugo 
Martins, Paula Costa
Sahoo, Susmita
Emanueli, Costanza
Ferreira, Lino 
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2020
Publisher: Nature
Project: Portuguese National Funding Agency for Science, Research and Technology (fellowship to R.C.d.A. (SFRH/SFRH/BD/129317/2017) and Project Exo- Heart (POCI-01-0145- FEDER-029919) to H.F.). 
P.A.d.C.M. is funded by a Dutch Heart Foundation grant (NHS2015T066). 
P.A.d.C.M., C.E. and L.F. are members of the EEU COST Action CardioRNA CA17129. 
S.S. has received grants from the NIH (HL124187, HL140469, HL148786 and NYSTEM C32562GG) and Transatlantic Foundation Leducq 
C.E. has received funding via a British Heart Foundation (BHF) programme grant, personal Chair awards (RG/15/5/31446 and CH/15/1/31199) and the BHF Centre of Vascular Regeneration 
L.F. is supported by Program Interreg Atlantic Space through the European Fund for Regional Development (Project NeuroAtlantic (EAPA_791/2018) and Pro ject 2IQBIONEURO (0624_2IQBIONEURO_6_E)) and EC Project ERAatUC (669088). 
Serial title, monograph or event: Nature Reviews Cardiology
Volume: 17
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous group of natural particles that are relevant to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. These endogenous vesicles have certain properties that allow them to survive in the extracellular space, bypass biological barriers and deliver their biologically active molecular cargo to recipient cells. Moreover, EVs can be bioengineered to increase their stability, bioactivity, presentation to acceptor cells and capacity for on-target binding at both cell-type-specific and tissue-specific levels. Bioengineering of EVs involves the modification of the donor cell before EV isolation or direct modification of the EV properties after isolation. The therapeutic potential of native EVs and bioengineered EVs has been only minimally explored in the context of cardiovascular diseases. Efforts to harness the therapeutic potential of EVs will require innovative approaches and a comprehensive integration of knowledge gathered from decades of research into molecular-compound delivery. In this Review, we outline the endogenous properties of EVs that make them natural delivery agents as well as the features that can be improved by bioengineering. We also discuss the therapeutic applications of native and bioengineered EVs to cardiovascular diseases and examine the opportunities and challenges that need to be addressed to advance this research area, with an emphasis on clinical translation.
DOI: 10.1038/s41569-020-0389-5
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CNC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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