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Title: Morphometry and gyrification in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: A comparative MRI study
Authors: Madeira, Nuno 
Duarte, João Valente 
Martins, Ricardo Filipe Alves 
Costa, Gabriel Nascimento Ferreira da 
Macedo, António 
Castelo-Branco, Miguel 
Keywords: Bipolar disorder; Gyrification; Morphometry; Schizophrenia
Issue Date: 2020
Serial title, monograph or event: NeuroImage: Clinical
Volume: 26
Abstract: Schizophrenia is believed to be a neurodevelopmental disease with high heritability. Differential diagnosis is often challenging, especially in early phases, namely with other psychotic disorders or even mood disorders. such as bipolar disorder with psychotic symptoms. Key pathophysiological changes separating these two classical psychoses remain poorly understood, and current evidence favors a more dimensional than categorical differentiation between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. While established biomarkers like cortical thickness and grey matter volume are heavily influenced by post-onset changes and thus provide limited possibility of accessing early pathologies, gyrification is assumed to be more specifically determined by genetic and early developmental factors. The aim of our study was to compare both classical and novel morphometric features in these two archetypal psychiatric disorders. We included 20 schizophrenia patients, 20 bipolar disorder patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Data analyses were performed with CAT12/SPM12 applying general linear models for four morphometric measures: gyrification and cortical thickness (surface-based morphometry), and whole-brain grey matter/grey matter volume (voxel-based morphometry - VBM). Group effects were tested using age and gender as covariates (and total intracranial volume for VBM). Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed a schizophrenia vs. control group effect on regional grey matter volume (p < 0.05, familywise error correction) in the right globus pallidus. There was no group effect on white matter volume when correcting for multiple comparisons neither on cortical thickness. Gyrification changes in clinical samples were found in the left supramarginal gyrus (BA40) - increased and reduced gyrification, respectively, in BPD and SCZ patients - and in the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA47), with a reduction in gyrification of the SCZ group when compared with controls. The joint analysis of different morphometric features, namely measures such as gyrification, provides a promising strategy for the elucidation of distinct phenotypes in psychiatric disorders. Different morphological change patterns, highlighting specific disease trajectories, could potentially generate neuroimaging-derived biomarkers, helping to discriminate schizophrenia from bipolar disorder in early phases, such as first-episode psychosis patients.
ISSN: 22131582
DOI: 10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102220
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CIBIT - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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