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Title: Progressing Towards the Sustainable Development of Cream Formulations
Authors: Simões, Ana
Veiga, Francisco 
Vitorino, Carla 
Keywords: Box–Behnken design; Cream formulation; Microstructure; Performance; Quality by design; Rheology; Topical dermatological product
Issue Date: 9-Jul-2020
Publisher: MDPI
Project: UIDB/50006/2020 
Serial title, monograph or event: Pharmaceutics
Volume: 12
Issue: 7
Abstract: This work aims at providing the assumptions to assist the sustainable development of cream formulations. Specifically, it envisions to rationalize and predict the effect of formulation and process variability on a 1% hydrocortisone cream quality profile, interplaying microstructure properties with product performance and stability. This tripartite analysis was supported by a Quality by Design approach, considering a three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design. Critical material attributes and process parameters were identified from a failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis. The impact of glycerol monostearate amount, isopropyl myristate amount, and homogenization rate on relevant quality attributes was estimated crosswise. The significant variability in product droplet size, viscosity, thixotropic behavior, and viscoelastic properties demonstrated a noteworthy influence on hydrocortisone release profile (112±2-196±7 μg/cm2/√h) and permeation behavior (0.16±0.03-0.97±0.08 μg/cm2/h), and on the assay, instability index and creaming rate, with values ranging from 81.9 to 120.5%, 0.031±0.012 to 0.28±0.13 and from 0.009±0.000 to 0.38±0.07 μm/s, respectively. The release patterns were not straightforwardly correlated with the permeation behavior. Monitoring the microstructural parameters, through the balanced adjustment of formulation and process variables, is herein highlighted as the key enabler to predict cream performance and stability. Finally, based on quality targets and response constraints, optimal working conditions were successfully attained through the establishment of a design space.
ISSN: 1999-4923
DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12070647
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CQC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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