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Title: Optimization of multiple coils immersed in a conducting liquid for half-hemisphere or whole-brain deep transcranial magnetic stimulation: A simulation study
Authors: Sousa, Sonia C. P. 
Almeida, Jorge 
Cavaleiro Miranda, Pedro 
Salvador, Ricardo 
Silvestre, Joao 
Simoes, Hugo 
Crespo, Paulo 
Keywords: Brain; Humans; Mental Disorders; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Issue Date: 2014
Serial title, monograph or event: Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference
Volume: 2014
Abstract: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was proposed in 1985. Nevertheless, its wider use in the treatment of several neurologic diseases has been hindered by its inability to stimulate deep-brain regions. This is mainly due to the physical limiting effect arising from the presence of surface discontinuities, particularly between the scalp and air. Here, we present the optimization of a system of large multiple coils for whole-brain and half-hemisphere deep TMS, termed orthogonal configuration. COMSOL(®)-based simulations show that the system is capable of reaching the very center of a spherical brain phantom with 58% induction relative to surface maximum. Such penetration capability surpasses to the best of our knowledge that of existing state of the art TMS systems. This induction capability strongly relies on the immersion of the stimulating coils and part of the head of the patient in a conducting liquid (e.g. simple saline solution). We show the impact of the presence of this surrounding conducting liquid by comparing the performance of our system with and without such liquid. In addition, we also compare the performance of the proposed coil with that of a circular coil, a figure-eight coil, and the H-coil. Finally, in addition to its whole-brain stimulation capability (e.g. potentially useful for prophylaxis of epileptic patients) the system is also able to stimulate mainly one brain hemisphere, which may be useful in stroke rehabilitation, among other applications.
DOI: 10.1109/EMBC.2014.6943647
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CINEICC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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