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|Title:||Conformational Studies of Poly(9,9-dialkylfluorene)s in Solution Using NMR Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations||Authors:||Justino, Licínia L. G.
Ramos, M. Luísa
Abreu, Paulo E.
Carvalho, Rui A.
Sobral, Abilio J. F. N.
Burrows, Hugh D.
|Issue Date:||3-Sep-2009||Publisher:||American Chemical Society||Citation:||The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 113:35 (2009) 11808-11821||Abstract:||Relationships have been obtained between intermonomer torsional angle and NMR chemical shifts (1H and 13C) for isolated chains of two of the most important poly(9,9-dialkylfluorenes), poly[9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)fluorene-2,7-diyl] (PF2/6) and the copolymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-[2,1,3]benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl) (F8BT), using DFT calculations. The correlations provide a model for NMR spectral data interpretation and the basis for analysis of conformational changes in poly(9,9-dialkylfluorene-2,7-diyl)s. The correlations obtained for PF2/6 indicate that the 13C chemical shifts of the aromatic carbons close to the intermonomer connection (C1, C2, and C3) have minimum values at planar conformations (0° and 180°) and maximum values at 90° conformations. In contrast, the 1H chemical shifts of the corresponding aromatic ortho protons (Ha and Hb) are greatest for planar conformations, and the minimum values are seen for 90° conformations. For the F8BT copolymer, similar relationships are observed for the 1H (Ha, Hb, and Hc) aromatic shifts. Considering the aromatic carbons of F8BT, the behavior of C2, C4, C5, and C6 is similar to that found for the PF2/6 carbons. However, C1 and C3 of the fluorene moiety behave differently with varying torsion angle. These are in close proximity to the fluorene−benzothiadiazole linkage and are markedly affected by interactions with the thiadiazole unit such that δC1 is a maximum for 180° and a minimum for 0°, whereas δC3 is a maximum for 0° and minimum for 180°. We have studied the 1H and 13C spectra of the two polymers at temperatures between −50 °C and +65 °C. The observed changes to higher or lower frequency in the aromatic resonances were analyzed using these theoretical relationships. Fluorescence studies on PF2/6 in chloroform solution suggest there are no significant interchain interactions under these conditions. This is supported by variable-temperature NMR results. Polymer−solvent and polymer intramolecular interactions were found to be present and influence all of the alkylic and one of the aromatic 1H resonances (Hb). The detailed attribution of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the two polymers was made prior to the establishment of the relationships between torsion angle and NMR chemical shifts. This was carried out through DFT calculation of the 1H and 13C shielding constants of the monomers, coupled with distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer and heteronuclear correlation NMR spectra. Several DFT levels of calculation were tested for both optimization of structures and shielding constants calculation. The B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method was found to perform well in both cases.||URI:||http://hdl.handle.net/10316/11256||ISSN:||1520-6106||Rights:||openAccess|
|Appears in Collections:||FCTUC Ciências da Vida - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais|
FCTUC Química - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
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