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Title: On the Development of Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins Using a New Type of Lignin Extracted from Pine Wood with a Levulinic-Acid Based Solvent
Authors: Melro, Elodie 
Antunes, Filipe E. 
Valente, Artur J. M. 
Duarte, Hugo
Romano, Anabela
Medronho, Bruno 
Keywords: bio-resins; levulinic acid; lignin; lignocellulosic waste; phenolic resins; resole resins
Issue Date: 29-Apr-2022
Publisher: MDPI
Project: CEECIND/01014/2018 
info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/UID/QUI/00313/ 2020 
Serial title, monograph or event: Molecules
Volume: 27
Issue: 9
Place of publication or event: Basel, Switzerland
Abstract: Resole resins have many applications, especially for foam production. However, the use of phenol, a key ingredient in resoles, has serious environmental and economic disadvantages. In this work, lignin extracted from pine wood using a "green" solvent, levulinic acid, was used to partially replace the non-sustainable phenol. The physicochemical properties of this novel resin were compared with resins composed of different types of commercial lignins. All resins were optimized to keep their free formaldehyde content below 1 wt%, by carefully adjusting the pH of the mixture. Substitution of phenol with lignin generally increases the viscosity of the resins, which is further increased with the lignin mass fraction. The addition of lignin decreases the kinetics of gelification of the resin. The type and amount of lignin also affect the thermal stability of the resins. It was possible to obtain resins with higher thermal stability than the standard phenol-formaldehyde resins without lignin. This work provides new insights regarding the development of lignin-based resoles as a very promising sustainable alternative to petrol-based resins.
ISSN: 1420-3049
DOI: 10.3390/molecules27092825
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CQC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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